Uncompromisingly influential, Staatliches Bauhaus, or known simply as the Bauhaus, was an art and design school in Germany that developed the seeds of modernism and what would become known as ‘international style.’ Bauhaus synthesized traditional crafts and the fine arts, and received recognition for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. Indeed, the movement’s pedagogical philosophy is perhaps one if its most enduring characteristics. The quest for a total work of art, or Gesamtkunstwerk, drove the principles and practices of Bauhaus.
Taking place from 1919 to 1933, between the two world wars, Bauhaus developed a pioneering fusion of fine art, craftsmanship, and technology to be applied across painting, sculpture, design, architecture, film, photography, textiles, ceramics, theatre, and installation. Between its three successive locations in Weimar, Dessau, and Berlin, each featuring specially designed Bauhaus buildings, the movement grew out of the German national designers’ organization, Deutscher Werkbund, and the more general movement of German architectural modernism known as Neues Bauen. Ultimately, Bauhaus embodied the apolitical new objectivity in vogue, a rejection of the emotional expressionism which had preceded in German culture.
TASCHEN books on Bauhaus design explore the zeitgeist that its founders and contributors manifested, amongst them, Walter Gropius, Josef and Anni Albers, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Oskar Schlemmer, Gunta Stölzl, Marianne Brandt, Piet Mondrian, Lyonel Feininger and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. TASCHEN books on Bauhaus style extrapolate on individual’s contributions, such as Marcel Breuer’s work in furniture design, including his Cantilever Chair and Wassily Chair, which revolutionized the direction of carpentry. Inspired in part by the leader of the Arts and Craft Movement William Morris, who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function, the foundational principles of Bauhaus lay the groundwork for more modern modes of design, such as graphic, interior and industrial.